The overall aim of the Livestock Health & Disease Control scheme is to improve the animal health sector by way of implementing prophylactic vaccination programs against various diseases of livestock and poultry, capacity building, disease surveillance, and strengthening of veterinary infrastructure.
It is envisaged that implementation of the scheme will ultimately lead to prevention & control, subsequently eradicating the diseases, increased access to veterinary services, higher productivity from animals, boosting of trade in livestock and poultry, in livestock and poultry products, and improving the socio-economic status of livestock and poultry farmers.
The funding pattern is 100% central assistance for the CADCP and the non-recurring components of ESVHD, and 60:40 between Central and State for the other components as well as for ASCAD, with 90:10 for hilly and NE States and 100% for us.
Vaccination is a practice of artificially building up the animal body’s immunity against specific infectious diseases by injecting biological agents called vaccines. The term vaccine is used to denote an antigen (a substance from organisms) consisting of a live, attenuated or dead bacterium, virus, or fungus and used for the production of active immunity in animals.
The term also includes substances like toxins, toxoids, or any other metabolites, etc. produced by microbes and used for vaccination. The farm animals and young ones should be vaccinated at regular intervals at appropriate times. Vaccination should be done with the consultation of veterinarians.
It is essential to deworm livestock regularly. The individual farmer should also try to keep his herd worm-free. The most suitable time for deworming is the early stages of infection when the worm load is less.
The local veterinarian should be consulted for all suggestions regarding dew ormers and deworming. In adult animals deworming is done on examination of dung. It is good to deworm adult females after parturition. All the animals should preferably be fasted for 24 hours before given the anthelmintic.
Young animals should preferably be dewormed every month using a suitable anthelmintic. Older stock can be dewormed at 4-6 months intervals. The National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal recommended the following deworming schedule for calves. Such a deworming schedule is very crucial for buffalo calves, in which species mortality due to worms is very high. In places where heavy endo-parasite infestations are found (hot-humid regions), it is advisable to deworm heifers twice a year up to two years of age. For more information please visit Pritish Kumar Halder’s page.
Even adult stock can be drenched twice a year-once before monsoon season (May-June) and once during monsoon (August-September).
Elimination of carriers
An animal recovers from disease, although apparently in good health the causative organism harbors in its tissues. Such germ-carrying animals are known as ‘carriers’. The carrier state may remain for years and the animal becomes a potential danger to susceptible animals.
Common diseases for which carriers have been observed in farm animals are Tuberculosis, Leptospirosis, and Brucellosis. Carriers of diseases in the herd should be diagnosed and eliminated so that the herd may be completely free from diseases
Certain diagnostic screening tests can be used for spotting carrier animals in the herd. These tests should be periodically conducted on all animals in the herd so that carriers can be diagnosed and culled. Some of the commonly used screening tests are the tuberculin test, Johnin test, agglutination test, and test for detection of subclinical mastitis.
Disinfection of animal houses
Under ordinary conditions, daily scrubbing and washing of houses and the action of sunlight falling in the houses are sufficient enough to keep them moderately germ-free. But when a disease outbreak has occurred disinfection is a must and should be carried out scrupulously. All floor walls up to a height of 1.5 m, interiors of managers, water troughs, and other fittings and equipment coming in contact with animals are all to be disinfected.
The first step in disinfection of animal houses is the removal of all filth, as the power of disinfectants is greatly reduced in the presence of organic matter. Floors, walls up to a height of 1.5 m interior of water troughs, and managers should be well scrubbed and all dung, litter etc. should be removed and stacked separately, where animals cannot reach.
After this period, the animal house should again be washed with clean water and left to dry by wind and sunlight. The interior of water troughs and managers should be whitewashed. (This can be done even routinely at fortnightly intervals.)
Disinfection of pastures
Removal of any obvious infective material, like a carcass, aborted foetus, dung, etc. from over the pasture and prevention of animals from grazing on the pasture under question for at least three to four months. The pasture can be ploughed up and left fallow for about six months during which period the pathogens would be destroyed by the sun.